SELF IN BUDDHISM

SELF IN BUDDHISM by Jimmy Petruzzi

Addressing the misconception about existence, value and meaning of the self as a separate entity plays an important part in Buddhist teachings. Also, these interpretations have attracted some debate in modern psychology as it can have a profound impact on our conceptualization of identity and the psychological problems that may arise from attempts to construct it.

One of the most fundamental doctrines of Buddhism is that the self is illusory and that concept has to be explored and experienced in order to be liberated from suffering. The widely accepted view is that it is only conventionally true that we are persons, but our perception about ourself does not correspond with the ultimate truth of reality. Through experience of the Five Aggregates—body, feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousness—we conclude that a separate self has to exist that retains identity over time, is permanent and enduring, and has controlling powers. However, the basic philosophical argument is that none of the Five Aggregates, representing all psychophysical elements, are permanent, therefore there is no [real separate] self.

However, the Buddha’s claim that the self does not exist is often misinterpreted or misrepresented as many of the current understandings and interpretations of the Buddha’s conception of the self is based on retrospective analyses. In fact, instead of teaching that nothing exists—that there is no existence—the Buddha teaches that beings and phenomena have no intrinsic existence. The same applies to the self.

Therefore, there is no blanket denial of the self in the Buddha’s teachings and scriptures. As such, the concept of Anattā, the non-self or absence of a separate self, attempts to define a line between the “self” and “others”, which can be thought to contain an element of self-identification and clinging, two factors that the Buddha identifies as a source of suffering and stress.

The concept of self was thought to be enveloped by immeasurable defects of mind, morality and character, which are impermanent and insubstantial. Simply, it means “Now you see it; now you don’t”. Therefore, the concept of the self in Buddhism is about the absence of static entity. The self is constructed in response to external factors and experiences, which continually change. So, the self can really be seen as a “stream of oneself” instead of a finite entity. In other words, one has no inherent existence that exists independently, but is merely the results of energy or matter orientation that evolves continuously in response to stresses from the environment. Instead of clinging to a concept of the self that is fluid and deceiving, the Buddha teaches to realize that there is no permanent individual self; and that this realization will contribute to the end of suffering and stress.

In this respect, the philosophy of Buddhism is argued to be committed to empirical scrutiny and the pursuit of knowledge in favour of speculation. The doctrine of the no-self rests on two main arguments, namely the argument from impermanence and the argument from control.

The first argument is based on the premises that a person is no more than the Five Aggregates (exhaustiveness claim), that the aggregates are not permanent, and that a self has to be permanent. The hypothesis therefore leads to the conclusion that there is no self. However, the main contested question, even today, is whether there is some self beyond the five skandhas, which remains largely denied.

In addition to permanence and control, the criteria for selfhood also includes the condition of numerical identity over time. Observations of bodily and mental states reveal that our body, feelings, perceptions,volitions and consciousness constantly change. Therefore this doctrine of momentariness that at every moment, the five skandhas arise, are destroyed and are succeeded by other numerically distinct (if similar) skandhas, supports the argument of no-self.

Secondly, and similarly, if there was a self, we would be able to alter aspects of it, or to control function in parts of it. However, this presumed executive function of the self is undermined by the principle of irreflexivity. This principle is based on the thesis that a whole is grounded on or depends entirely on its parts, in this case the five skandhas. But irreflexivity holds that no things are grounded in or can operate on themselves. It follows that “if the self performed the executive function, it could perform that function on other parts of the person, but not on itself. This means that I could never find myself dissatisfied with and wanting to change myself, which in turn means that any part of me that I can find myself wanting to change could not be myself” (Siderits, 2007, p.47).

However, a counterargument can also be made here. Knowledge and suffering are key elements in the Buddhist philosophy that have to be explored to achieve liberation. Arguably, these concepts imply the existence of a subject to which they apply. The capacity to analyse and observe change, for instance, is coherent with the presence of a self, however fluid and fleeting in any one state.

What we experience, rather, is a continuous flow of perceptions that replace one another in rapid succession. “When I enter most intimately into what I call myself,” says Hume, “I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception.” Within the mind, he continues, these perceptions “successively make their appearance; pass, re-pass, glide away, and mingle in an infinite variety of postures and situations” (Selby-Bigge, 1965, p. 253). It can be seen to simply mean that there is never simplicity in the mind nor the same identity at two different times.

Therefore, our notion of the self is constantly shaped by successive perceptions and interpretations of thoughts, feelings, sensations and other mental experiences. Instead of a persisting, invariable and interrupted personal identity, we contain much more diversity than our concept of a permanent, controlling, fictitious self.

Evolutionary psychologists have largely found appeal in the idea that there is not one ultimate controlling self, a kind of CEO of the mind. Most behaviours are related to thoughts and feelings that arise outside of our awareness, arguably to serve some Darwinian purpose without our intentional intervention or control. Instead, our conscious effort is to rationalize and attach some meaning to these inner experiences, using objective interpretations that are far from factual and complete.

As such, our identity is the sum of our memories, which is therefore fluid, contextual and sometimes confabulated. We seem to struggle to accept our interdependence and utilize group interaction to support the self-illusion to serve our own perceived interests. Our attachment to this arising illusory self is part of the understanding and experience of Dependent Arising (patica samuppada).

According to Buddhist discourse, the not-understanding of the Dependent Arising is the root of all suffering of all beings. It starts with ignorance of the truth that clouds the right understanding, which causes activities that are good or bad, but do not contribute to end suffering. The consciousness links past with present, followed by the mind and body, the six senses, and feelings. These five aspects are the effects of past actions and represent the passive and reactive life.

From feeling arises craving, which results in grasping and, ultimately, behaviour. Therefore, feeling is the outcome of contact between senses and objects. It leads to action that is beyond our awareness and comprehension if we do not understand and accept the true nature of the self. As such, the concept of the no-self has a complex and far-reaching consequence on psychology and the theoretical framework of therapy approaches, as many conditions of suffering are rooted in trying to attach to an elusive sense of self.

References:

Selby-Bigge, L. A. (1965). Hume’s treatise of human nature. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Siderits, M. (2007). Buddhism as philosophy: An introduction. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.

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SELF IN BUDDHISM by Jimmy Petruzzi

SELF IN BUDDHISM by Jimmy Petruzzi

Addressing the misconception about existence, value and meaning of the self as a separate entity plays an important part in Buddhist teachings. Also, these interpretations have attracted some debate in modern psychology as it can have a profound impact on our conceptualization of identity and the psychological problems that may arise from attempts to construct it.

One of the most fundamental doctrines of Buddhism is that the self is illusory and that concept has to be explored and experienced in order to be liberated from suffering. The widely accepted view is that it is only conventionally true that we are persons, but our perception about ourself does not correspond with the ultimate truth of reality. Through experience of the Five Aggregates—body, feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousness—we conclude that a separate self has to exist that retains identity over time, is permanent and enduring, and has controlling powers. However, the basic philosophical argument is that none of the Five Aggregates, representing all psychophysical elements, are permanent, therefore there is no [real separate] self.

However, the Buddha’s claim that the self does not exist is often misinterpreted or misrepresented as many of the current understandings and interpretations of the Buddha’s conception of the self is based on retrospective analyses. In fact, instead of teaching that nothing exists—that there is no existence—the Buddha teaches that beings and phenomena have no intrinsic existence. The same applies to the self.

Therefore, there is no blanket denial of the self in the Buddha’s teachings and scriptures. As such, the concept of Anattā, the non-self or absence of a separate self, attempts to define a line between the “self” and “others”, which can be thought to contain an element of self-identification and clinging, two factors that the Buddha identifies as a source of suffering and stress.

The concept of self was thought to be enveloped by immeasurable defects of mind, morality and character, which are impermanent and insubstantial. Simply, it means “Now you see it; now you don’t”. Therefore, the concept of the self in Buddhism is about the absence of static entity. The self is constructed in response to external factors and experiences, which continually change. So, the self can really be seen as a “stream of oneself” instead of a finite entity. In other words, one has no inherent existence that exists independently, but is merely the results of energy or matter orientation that evolves continuously in response to stresses from the environment. Instead of clinging to a concept of the self that is fluid and deceiving, the Buddha teaches to realize that there is no permanent individual self; and that this realization will contribute to the end of suffering and stress.

In this respect, the philosophy of Buddhism is argued to be committed to empirical scrutiny and the pursuit of knowledge in favour of speculation. The doctrine of the no-self rests on two main arguments, namely the argument from impermanence and the argument from control.

The first argument is based on the premises that a person is no more than the Five Aggregates (exhaustiveness claim), that the aggregates are not permanent, and that a self has to be permanent. The hypothesis therefore leads to the conclusion that there is no self. However, the main contested question, even today, is whether there is some self beyond the five skandhas, which remains largely denied.

In addition to permanence and control, the criteria for selfhood also includes the condition of numerical identity over time. Observations of bodily and mental states reveal that our body, feelings, perceptions,volitions and consciousness constantly change. Therefore this doctrine of momentariness that at every moment, the five skandhas arise, are destroyed and are succeeded by other numerically distinct (if similar) skandhas, supports the argument of no-self.

Secondly, and similarly, if there was a self, we would be able to alter aspects of it, or to control function in parts of it. However, this presumed executive function of the self is undermined by the principle of irreflexivity. This principle is based on the thesis that a whole is grounded on or depends entirely on its parts, in this case the five skandhas. But irreflexivity holds that no things are grounded in or can operate on themselves. It follows that “if the self performed the executive function, it could perform that function on other parts of the person, but not on itself. This means that I could never find myself dissatisfied with and wanting to change myself, which in turn means that any part of me that I can find myself wanting to change could not be myself” (Siderits, 2007, p.47).

However, a counterargument can also be made here. Knowledge and suffering are key elements in the Buddhist philosophy that have to be explored to achieve liberation. Arguably, these concepts imply the existence of a subject to which they apply. The capacity to analyse and observe change, for instance, is coherent with the presence of a self, however fluid and fleeting in any one state.

What we experience, rather, is a continuous flow of perceptions that replace one another in rapid succession. “When I enter most intimately into what I call myself,” says Hume, “I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception.” Within the mind, he continues, these perceptions “successively make their appearance; pass, re-pass, glide away, and mingle in an infinite variety of postures and situations” (Selby-Bigge, 1965, p. 253). It can be seen to simply mean that there is never simplicity in the mind nor the same identity at two different times.

Therefore, our notion of the self is constantly shaped by successive perceptions and interpretations of thoughts, feelings, sensations and other mental experiences. Instead of a persisting, invariable and interrupted personal identity, we contain much more diversity than our concept of a permanent, controlling, fictitious self.

Evolutionary psychologists have largely found appeal in the idea that there is not one ultimate controlling self, a kind of CEO of the mind. Most behaviours are related to thoughts and feelings that arise outside of our awareness, arguably to serve some Darwinian purpose without our intentional intervention or control. Instead, our conscious effort is to rationalize and attach some meaning to these inner experiences, using objective interpretations that are far from factual and complete.

As such, our identity is the sum of our memories, which is therefore fluid, contextual and sometimes confabulated. We seem to struggle to accept our interdependence and utilize group interaction to support the self-illusion to serve our own perceived interests. Our attachment to this arising illusory self is part of the understanding and experience of Dependent Arising (patica samuppada).

According to Buddhist discourse, the not-understanding of the Dependent Arising is the root of all suffering of all beings. It starts with ignorance of the truth that clouds the right understanding, which causes activities that are good or bad, but do not contribute to end suffering. The consciousness links past with present, followed by the mind and body, the six senses, and feelings. These five aspects are the effects of past actions and represent the passive and reactive life.

From feeling arises craving, which results in grasping and, ultimately, behaviour. Therefore, feeling is the outcome of contact between senses and objects. It leads to action that is beyond our awareness and comprehension if we do not understand and accept the true nature of the self. As such, the concept of the no-self has a complex and far-reaching consequence on psychology and the theoretical framework of therapy approaches, as many conditions of suffering are rooted in trying to attach to an elusive sense of self.

References:

Selby-Bigge, L. A. (1965). Hume’s treatise of human nature. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Siderits, M. (2007). Buddhism as philosophy: An introduction. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.

 

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Jimmy Petruzzi discussing forthcoming HypnoBiz Hypnobiz Australia event 2020

Jimmy Petruzzi discussing forthcoming  HypnoBiz  Hypnobiz Australia event 2020

discussing  How to facilitate long-term adaptive behavioral and emotional change seminar

Details of the Hypnobiz Australia event 2020

https://www.hypnobizaustralia.com/?afmc=1i

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Live mini tutorial Cartesian questions to explore change , consequences and decisions

Live mini tutorial Cartesian questions to explore change , consequences and decisions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSj7DI3Ykk0

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correlation between EI and work performance

correlation between EI and work performance
with Jimmy Petruzzi

 


Disagree with the view of causation between emotional intelligence and work/ academic performance, Though i agree with a correlation between EI and work performance.
According to Goleman, (1998), EI can be improved, and is more significant than intelligence, and how in sales environments people with high EI do better than people with less EI.
In contrast to the research by Goleman, (1998). Research by Matthews et al.(2002) raises concerns about the choice in the people administering the MSCEIT V.2 test and the lack of scientific validity in the scoring system which would question the validity of the results.According to research by Landy & Conte, (2004) there are concerns about the scientific validity of emotional intelligence, specifying concerns about how EI is measured.The research suggests a weakness in emotional intelligence empirical validity, and there appears to be doubts in the reliability of the administration of testing protocols,
According to research specified above, based around the scientific validity of EI, it would appear difficult to suggest a causation between emotional intelligence and work performance. Although upon examining the literature comparatively a conclusion can be drawn there is a correlation between EI and work success,
Research by Daus &Ashkanasy, ( 2005) specify a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and work related performance although in contrast research by Locke,( 2005) takes a more negative view of the correlation between EI and work related performance, although pointing out potential benefits, the negative view tends to be based on the limited empirical research around EI. Which supports the argument of no causation between EI and work based performance, though a potential correlaton.
Also of significance research Murphy, (2014) suggests emotional intelligence from a practical point of view lacks scientific credibility, and derives from the FFM. According to Murphy (2014) doubts over the reliability of self-reporting tests, for example someone applying for a job could consciously choose the most appropriate answer. The research supports a correlation of EI and work based performance, linking EI to the FFM model which has immense empirical evidence, although it appears on its own it would be difficult to suggest EI is causative for work success or causative testing protocols for successful work placement.
What are your thoughts on EI being a correlative factor to work success in adverse to causative?
references
Daus, C., & Ashkanasy, N. (2005). The case for the abilitybased model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 453-466.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2004). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Murphy, K. R. (2014). A Critique of Emotional Intelligence: What Are the Problems and How Can
They Be Fixed? London: Psychology Press.

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: a meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71–95

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Piaget’s Theory of Child Development

Piaget’s Theory of Child Development

 

The best known human developmental stage model was developed by Jean Piaget, whose ideas became popular in the 1960s. He described four sequential stages of cognitive development from birth to adulthood. Piaget’s cognitive theory consists of three building blocks, namely (a) schemas, or building blocks of knowledge, (b) adaptation processes of equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation that enables the transition from one stage to another, and (c) distinction of four steps of development. These developmental stages include the sensorimotor (0-2 years), preoperational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (11 years+) periods. To today, the stages remain useful, especially to understand the cognitive development of children, but it has also attracted criticism.

 

Sensorimotor Stage

 

Piaget suggested that the first stage of human development, the sensorimotor stage, begins at birth and lasts to 2-years-old. When a baby is born, he or she starts to develop both physically and cognitively. Physical abilities include crawling, grasping, and pulling, and, as babies develop cognitive skills, they also start to think about their behaviors and react to different stimuli such as noises, movement, and emotions. These aspects are what defines the sensorimotor stage, which can be further subdivided into six types, namely simple reflexes, primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions, coordination of reactions, and early representational thought.

 

A reflex is an involuntary reaction that happens automatically without thinking and is prevalent for the first six weeks of life. Primary circular reactions occur around 1-4 months of age when they realize that they have the ability to repeat a movement such as placing their thumb in their mouth. Secondary circular reactions happen between 4-8 months, and the child learns to intentionally repeat an action to get a response in the environment.

 

Coordination of reactions, which include clearly intentional actions, exploring their immediate surroundings, imitating the observed behavior of others, and recognizing the qualities of objects, take place between 8-12 months. Tertiary circular reactions involves trial-and-error experimentation, especially trying out out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver, at 12-18 months of age. In the final sensorimotor substage, early representational thought, children become aware of mental operations and begin to develop symbols to represent events of objects in the world.

 

Preoperational Stage

 

The second stage of child development, the preoperational stage, lasts from 2-years-old to the age of 7. During this period, children starts to talk and begin to engage in symbolic play during which they learn to manipulate symbols. Yet, Piaget argued, they do not understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism. They use pretending in play activities by using objects to represent something else and assuming others’ roles. During this time, few children showed an understanding of conservation, or the ability to determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size.

 

Concrete Operational Stage

 

Piaget called the third developmental stage the concrete operational stage, which spans from 7- to 12-years-old. The main characteristic of the concrete operational stage are a better understanding of mental operations, such as thinking logically about concrete events and an awareness that actions can be reversed. However, they still have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. At his time, their understanding of conservation develops, and the marked egocentrism disappears.

 

Formal Operational Stage

 

Piaget’s final stage of child development happens in adolescence, from 12-year-old onward. During this fourth period of cognitive growth, abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning skills emerge. Children can use logic to come up with creative solutions to problems and apply systematic planning in the process. Deductive reasoning requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular outcome, while the capacity to think about abstract concepts means considering possible outcomes and consequences of actions rather than solely relying on previous experiences. Also, instead of depending on trial-and-error to solve problems, teens are able to plan an organized and systematic approach to achieve the same.

 

Criticism of Piaget’s Theory

 

More recent postformal development models criticized the fact that Piaget’s model does not cover adult cognitive development. Mostly, Piaget’s model assumes that thinking changes halt in adolescence and early adulthood. Until recently even, it has even been believed that adulthood brings a long and steady decline of cognitive capability. This is just illogical and definitely not correct but has shaped education and leadership development approaches of adults for many decades.

 

Also, there is an unclear association between cognitive and intellectual abilities. Piaget’s theory largely overlooks effects of cultural, social, and other contextual influences. The identification of distinct stages is oversimplified and assumes the same level of cognitive operations in all areas of functioning of any individual at a time. It also diminishes the impact of ego development and other psychological phenomena on cognitive processes, an issue that causes a failure to adequately account for dysfunctional behavior and psychological disturbances. Generally, no explanation is provided for a qualitative difference in cognitive capacity between two persons of the same age.

 

Piaget also assumed that individuals will automatically transcend to the next stage as they age, with the meaning of age generally defining developmental and social status. This is a fundamental flaw, especially when considering adult cognitive development. Contrary to earlier beliefs, children are not alike “little adults” with only incremental differences in physical ability, skills, and intelligence. Their cognitive structures and thinking patterns are vastly different. Thus, as a first step, several researchers expanded Piaget’s model to cover the whole lifespan, including the various adult stages of development, which is outside the scope of this material.

 

However, Piaget’s model remains useful to explain cognitive stages in child development, especially as he applied the concept of schema to an understanding of the development of learning in children. Piaget defined schema as the child’s mental representation of an associated set of perceptions, ideas, and/or behavior that form the basic building block of thinking. With the development of cognitive abilities, new schemata are constructed, while existing schemata are more efficiently organized to better adapt to the environment. Piaget also noted that an individual has the tendency to interpret new events about existing schemata rather than adapting or forming new ones. Therefore, the model describes how a child’s views and beliefs about himself, others, and the world builds over time until it becomes relatively fixed in late adolescence and plays a determining role in people’s emotions, thoughts, and behavior.

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jimmy petruzzi

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An examination of my career progression from a holistic perspective

An examination of my career progression from a holistic perspective

The question “Who am I?” invariably sets the stage for a journey to self-discovery. It is not a biographical or historical question that seeks information about a person’s origin or social status.

my love and my call to this field came from a belief  that we needed in  therapy  was a holistic perspective there are a number of challenges the first as any time we try to change a conventional system on are natural human instinct is to come to protect torrential  in our turf in our expertise and people have decades the training in all the sudden they’re like now I’m supposed to do something different that’s very scary but I think if you can bring the perspective back to people love this isn’t necessarily changing what you do but it may be changing the way in which you do it that’s a holistic perspective and I find that much less threatening to people practicing in conventional circles  than the idea that they’re going to have to acquire whole new Set of  tools and skills and knowledge base

have dear friends and colleagues who are holistic providers from every walk a professional practice whether they’re a practicing surgeon  or they’re an acupuncturist I also have people in all of those worlds that ok maybe even be doing integrated recovery practices art necessarily very holistic in their perspective they don’t necessarily consider the mind the body the spirit the relational the environmental  the social all of those aspects so it doesn’t really matter if you’re too

tool is a scalpel  or an acupuncture needle it’s really the lens through which you look at in relate to the person that you’re interacting with and I really think that all health care professions have within them the capability to doing that and more importantly I think that that’s what patients  and individuals want their health care

holism and how it can be applied to career progression

Holism is Fairley broad an nebulous term, it can mean many things to different people what holism   essentially is it’s a kind of our way of viewing the world as a whole an  inter connected interdependent entity everything is connected to everything else and it’s a reaction to scientific reductionism in particular. The idea became particular strong on the 19th century that one should study nature and for that matter society by chopping it up into small peace’s and examining those small peace’s  and really understanding them and people a especially the late 19th or 20th century certain people had great problems with understanding this way of understanding the world argue that by focusing so much on  this kind of mechanistic and reductive science people losing a sense of  the whole  and the way everything was connected to everything else  so various scientists and intellectuals and writers then kind of developed what we consider to be  a  body of holistic thought over the course of the 20th century and I think one of the most important aspect to that is ecological holism this ecological world view that very much sees the world and everything in it as deeply interconnected  including human beings who are not seen as something outside of the natural world  but apart all these  interconnections beginning in the eighteen hundreds science defined first medicine then psychology , now the roles are starting to reverse as psychology or several centuries corporate capitalist culture did meet the needs a majority of people perhaps as late as the nineteen fifties in 2011 Occupy Wall Street another’s observed into it that mainstream corporate capitalist culture was no longer meeting the needs of a majority of people

informational interviews , I conducted  lots of informational interviews with people who are already doing what I was  considering for myself ,they were able to provide a wealth of information on how they did it why they chose it what they love most about it what they love least about it. I asked  specific questions and  concerns about the career that I was  considering.  I also did  job shadowing so I could  also explore which careers were right for me by doing some job shadowing this simply means giving getting a sense of a day-in-the-life off so that I was in a better position to determine whether it’s something that I wanted. When i decided to start a coaching business i did on the side for two years while I had a full-time consulting job before I jumped into it as a full-time. I also did volunteering and interning. Volunteering and interning was a great way to get a sense of whether it’s something that I wanted to pursue more seriously.

Past progression, my dream was to be an athlete as a teenager and compete on the world stage , I had a achieved that and a big part of helping me achieve that was my search for answers. I came from a poor family, and my identity the way I was defined was I would accept working in a factory. Not that their anything wrong with that, I started to work in a factory very young and had to drop out of school as my mum was ill, and dad got injured at work. So I had to grow up fast, though my burning ambition was to compete around the world. So I saved some money and hired a coach who had a therapeutic background which helped me to overcome many imitating beliefs  I had.

Injury had cut my career in athletics short and I then decided to become a coach myself and I studied hard went to university and completed many courses I had a thirst for education,  worked at the highest level as a coach in football then felt it was time to move on and I worked for a number of years with young people in care homes and secure unit. This helped me to develop and understand people much better until I decided to leave that field and set up our own training company  and 1 to 1 practice. All through out I have been committed to life long learning and I guess I have more or less tumbled into one thing or another.

Today many people approach their education pragmatically. They ask, “How will learning this prepare me for a job?” The implication of such a question is that if it does not help me get a job, it is not worth studying.

However, putting bread on the table is not all there is to a happy life. Life’s circumstances and experiences compel us to think about things beyond our daily bread. If this line of reasoning is right, if we cannot help but philosophize, then should we not learn to do it well? One way of learning how to do it is to listen carefully to others who have philosophized from many different times and places. We can learn by example even when we disagree with the views of those from whom we learn.

Depth and breadth of view, reflexivity, comprehension of complex arguments and texts, and the ability to think critically and objectively are all skills and abilities honed through the study of philosophy, claims Bertrand Russell. (Russell, 2007) Together these represent a mental toolkit that allows for a deeper and more systematic understanding and approach to the demands common in almost any competitive modern work environment. Philosophy is in large part concerned with the fundamentals that underlie our thinking, perceptions and beliefs. In thinking, as in most everything else, a sound understanding of the fundamentals is essential to success. Philosophy looks at the mechanics of rational thought and the fundamental assumptions that go into our general understanding of the world in order to better understand any particular theory, belief, idea, or problem.

My life did not always go to plan, I had dreams and ambition’s to be one thing or another though at some point due to personal circumstances I had to find acceptance. An acceptance is profound in that it exposes us to the raw, unadulterated experience of our life at this moment. It is the only way to meet life as it is, to face challenges and draw on opportunities as they present; everything else is fantasy, imagination, and hope. And these have never been effective strategies to cope, be resilient, and kick-start change.

My Current position  is I find myself on a path of making a difference in the world I run training courses and do one to one session helping people learn to overcome challenges and setbacks.Be the best version of themselves.

Self-knowledge is an important virtue. This importance derives at least partly from the fact that self-knowledge enables us to pursue goals that we find personally fulfilling instead of being controlled by external, to some extent haphazard, influences. The idea that philosophical counselling is essentially ‘world view interpretation’ (Lahav, 1995) or ‘critical examination of life-directing conceptions’ (Schefczyk, 1995) becomes understandable from the stand-point of self-knowledge: the self that philosophical counsellors wish to elucidate by their questions and remarks certainly includes the counsellees’ conceptions. But we do not have to reduce the philosophically interesting self to beliefs and other such relatively cognitive elements. The virtue of self-knowledge also concerns our bodies and emotions.

Knowledge of the external world can be seen as a virtue to the extent that it enables us to lead personally satisfactory and morally acceptable lives (Cohen, 2005; Maxwell, 2000 and 2007; Ryan, 1999 and 2007). The truth of our beliefs about physical and social realities is important because the success of our activities depends on it. Ignorance may also lead us astray with respect to morally required ends. In our time knowledge of ecological threats and disasters, for example, might be seen as morally important.

Future plans/expectations are to carry on learning and doing what I do, though I am open to other possibilities. I want to carry on reaching as many people as possible through courses, books , audios and keep on learning doing different courses learning from different people. Be the best  I can be.

Self-knowledge has a variety of dimensions and philosophers have proposed, and continue to propose, a host of different methods to explore or to establish the principles of a very particular form of knowledge such as this. Traditionally, empiricist and rationalist approaches have dominated the epistemic views of self-knowledge. The latter starts with Descartes, or even earlier, and continues until Kant; the former includes Locke and Hume. In fact, if one thinks of Hume and Kant as the most relevant modern representatives and the culmination points of both approaches to self-knowledge, it would seem perfectly acceptable to suggest that introspection plays a determinant methodological role. In the first case, let us remember what Hume famously said regarding his own mind and what he finds there: “For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of hot or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself, at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception” (D. Hume, 1984).

Openness to new ways of understanding ourselves and our world is a cognitive virtue (Lahav, 2001, 2006; Mattila, 2001a; Tukiainen, 2000). Occasionally we need radically new perspectives and novel concepts, and some of these notions may not be logically deducible from our present views. Such changes in point of view may be identical with, or at least lead to, re-evaluations of our situation. Reframing can also affect our feelings and behaviour, as Epictetus and many other philosophers have recognised (Cohen, 2003 and Mattila, 2001b).

Self-discovery leads to the development of the ethics of self-mastery. Many ethical systems prescribe how the individual could attain self-mastery by means of critical self-examination or self-analysis. Once such critical self-examination or self-analysis is successfully carried out, the individual begins to use himself, his personal preferences, as the standard of what is right or wrong. This is the background to the Confucian, Kantian and Existentialist ethics of categorical imperatives. Even in religious ethical systems that attribute the source of the moral law to divine authority, the individual still has to take a leap of faith to discover God’s purpose for his existence, which he then internalizes.

The principles articulated above are probably going to have their most accessible form in social learning group processes.

Holism is a rich and complex topic yet deeply simple and foundationally resonant,

The insistence of our society to view problems from one point of view this is the problem with linear thinking in general it’s the idea that there’s one problem one solution there are no isolated events all events are interactions between different events happening on different planes.

I have come to believe spirituality and science were separated at me for historic reasons and that it’s time now to reunite. In a single world fear that can encompass the best of our spiritual traditions and the best of scientific traditions. In my opinion  not that I am advocating people don’t take prescribed drugs I am also not medically  qualified to make a judgement, though pharmaceuticals  in my opinion almost never deal with the reasons why peoples mental health  problems exist while they frequently create new health problems and side effects of their activities the nature. The body is only as strong as its surrounding environment and their fuel we feed ourselves. Holism is based on the understanding that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Illness does not occur without a cause underlying causes of disease must be discovered and corrected in order for a person to get recovered from illness symptoms express the bodies attempt to heal or the body telling us it is sick. If we treat symptoms without looking at their cause the symptoms return and the illness has grown stronger. My understanding is much of the allopathic medicine works by suppressing the symptoms of illness instead of removing causes.  The elimination f the symptoms is not the same as elimination of the illness itself. Looking at every aspect of ones health, social, emotional, spiritual and physical. a more holistic, more human approach to mental health

reference

Hickson, H. (2011). Critical reflection: reflecting on learning to be reflective. Reflective Practice, 12(6), 829–839. Retrieved from:

http://liverpool.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselc&AN=edselc.2-52.0-80053033678&site=eds-live&scope=site

Achenbach, G., (1998). On Wisdom in Philosophical Practice. Inquiry: Critical Thinking across the Disciplines

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Psychology involves scientific study

Psychology involves   scientific study that means we use some pretty specific processes

and look at very specific information,

 

there are times when one in one doesn’t equal two, there is another way to think called synthesis where you ask what something is part of. You first identify the containing whole  it is a part of. Then you try to understand the behaviour the containing whole and finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole and  finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole by identifying the role or function. There are certain things we just can’t understand just by taking things apart. Like water for example, water is made out of hydrogen and oxygen and they are both gases. If you study water is it interacts with the environment around it. If you take it apart and study it you’ll never find wetness

what is systems thinking, it say you want to make a cup of tea, you put water in the kettle, you plug in the kettle, put a tea bag in your cup, and switch the kettle on until it boils and pour the water in the cup. In this case you deal  with only inanimate objects you  can change the sequence or  change the amount of ingredients this system is a deterministic system because we can determine the outcome by knowing the processes,  the boundaries of  the system are those of your  kitchen, which Is a sub system of your city, the system you are managing has  multiple layers of context,this system is also called and open system, which has in puts and out puts the input is converted to the out put through a process. We can optimise the system by economizing resources that a scarce if time is the scarce resource your first action might be to deploy the kettle, because you know that warming up the kettle takes longer than the other tasks

we need a new vision which involves comprehensive science to support us, there is a new theory emerging now, which places many concepts into one, coherent scientific framework, we call it systems theory, all living organisms as well as social systems and eco systems see this theory would help us get a much firm grasp on science, instead of concentrating  on basic building blocks

the system’s you concentrates on principals organizations instead of cutting things to peaces , it looks at the system as a whole. Someone could look at a tree and conceptually take it to peaces then he would never really understand the nature of the tree , a systems thinker would look at the tree and see the life of the tree in relation to the life of the whole forest.

 

psychological influences relate to the way we see the world, so that includes learning, which we define the associations that create relatively  permanent changes it  also includes thinking or  cognition the way we process information and personalities characteristic ways or thinking or behaviour , we also have a biological influence   it’s the nature peace of  the nature versus nurture debate  the things that are somewhat  hard-wired in human beings, ranging from microscopic neurons to the hormones sent out in a blood  from the endocrine system , moving onto the bigger organs and parts of the nervous system and the brain the sense organs and then coming back to the complicated workings of genetics, the biological influences are pretty hard to ignore the same way we don’t live in isolation hence the fact that we have in each year versus nurture debate, the presence and behaviours of others does affect us, each of these peace’s gives us a unique perspective on behaviour

so we need to think about all the pieces together, ensuing it becomes not nature or nurture.it becomes nature and nurture together , our inability to classify things in one of the lenses or the other, different perspectives and influences on behaviour,

the experience of mental illness can be overwhelming, symptom’s like sadness, agitation,  overwhelming rage, panic attacks, mental illness and where to look for solutions, the biopsychosocial model, to think about this in terms of a Venn diagram with three overlapping circles, the first article contains the biological part of the picture, in any mental illness they’re likely to be biological factors, like heredity also certain illnesses can cause issues as well and trauma has an enormous impact,  on our bodies, we like to think of trauma of just a mental issue though it’s definitely a biological tissue to for solutions in the biological circle were talking about going to a doctor and getting onto medication, the second circle is psychological and spiritual in nature, this circle is about the experiences that have brought pain into our lives, and with that pain we’ve have thoughts  we’ve have feelings and those thoughts and those feelings can develop into beliefs like nobody can love me and I’ll always be abandoned  for solutions in this part of the circle we’re looking to therapy , in  therapy  we can learn to recognize these negative thoughts

 

 

 

the third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now

third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now there may be family stress there maybe job pressures are unemployment there may be difficult of the accident or injury  any kind of transition even positive transition bring stressed into our lives and when that happens we need to figure out how to deal with those issues in the social circle , in the social circle usually what we’re talking about is looking at our boundaries  and how we can be helped me in the area of self-care

I think dealing with mental is like learning to play a complicated instrument, learning about it, reading about it, is not going to  be enough, you will need practise  if you’re going to learn to play this instrument, often you need to take lessons and you can think about their be that way you’re learning to play an instrument of your life

 

The article I will focus on is

Freeman, J. (2005). Towards a definition of holism. British Journal of General Practice, 55(511), 154–155

Freeman discusses how practitioners who claim practise  holism are in fact biologically reductionist, I think Freeman made some great point as he emphasises they focus on a set of questions, with out looking at the big picture and also use  remedies which are not looking at the big picture. Freeman used a great example of sharmanic practise who say the are holistic, though when you look at things closer they in fact are reductionist.There is a misconception of what holism actually is Holism does not mean ‘anything outside traditional allopathy’.

I agree with the following statement made in Freemans article” The hope of a holistic approach is that we can employ many allies in the effort to bring better health to people”Freeman also makes a good pint about Swedish GPS talking about the importance of a holistic approach.

Reductionism treats people the same

A diagnosis caused by genes, chemical balance, one drug for all approach,

Holisms lets look at other things emotions, experiences, the whole person,

Reductionism scientific can be limiting creates rules for everyone, holism a variety of treatments /treatment methods, talking to the patient, talk therapy, understand the patients emotions, experiences and behaviours, using mri scans to understand genetics etc ,

Reductionism patients have same or similar symptons , Holism individualise the treatment ,

‘holistic’ are in fact far more biologically reductionist not looking at the bigger picture  no more holistic than the use of pharmaceuticals or surgery.

I guess what you class as holistic depends on where you stand, a brief review of the medical

literature suggests that there are multiple understandings of holism — it is used for a variety of approaches that come under the heading of ‘complementary’ or ‘alternative’ medicine, spirituality in health, nursing practice, and the more compehensive style of allopathic care suggested by the biopsychosocial model of George Engel, now widely accepted in the general practice community.

Holism is a rich and complex topic yet deeply simple and foundationally resonant. Holistic Science reflects both the topic of holism itself as well as the method through which to know .

I believe spirituality and science were separated at me for historic reasons and that it’s time now to

Reunite, that can encompass the best of our spiritual traditions and the best I scientific traditions.

We are in a living universe, sometimes science points towards celestial mechanics, that’s running down by entropy, that by some miracle life emerged from non-life and consciousness from unconsciousness intelligence from now on intelligence. Those have been the problems for Western science and while many western scientists have convinced themselves that there really are explanations for chemistry coming out of non-life and producing non life. physical reductionism is actually on its last legs despite it seemed to be the dominant paradigm in western academia, the universe is so mysterious and so strange, on duality can reduce it’ll consciousness and there’s nothing really but all consciousness and you’re in between those two as you and I.

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attribution

 

I was once called in to help a football club prepare psychology for their last 10 games, they were in a relegation battle, and needed to win 9 out of their 10 games. They had not won 9 games all year. Myers 2012) Talks about how we become the centre of our world. This team on my first observation had become the centre of their own existence. At least that was my realization after carefully going through videos of their performances, talking to players, staff. And anyone who had any potential influence on the players performance. I asked the players in a team meeting why they thought they were in the position they were in, after all they performed  really good in a cup match against a team a few leagues higher, though could not win a game in this league. One of the players, said luck, another said referees, another said the coaching. And many said a combination of all 3 and many other external factors. Many of which were un controllable and there may have been some logic. After all in the course of a season i am sure things will balance  themselves out. So i began to get the team to focus on controllable factors, application and effort. The could all focus intrinsically not matter what the refereeing decisions were, luck so on and so forth. After all just like it says in Goodwin (2010) our memory can be selective. And whether these players were right or wrong , they started to pay alot of attention on every little thing that did not go their way, and the management and staff were reinforcing it. So they were not seeing the things that were going their way, worse still they were reacting to everything that perceivably went against them and not focusing on what went well.

Now in the video, Laurent education ( 2012) the manager uses external indicators to measure the staff competency, he uses a points scale. Daly ( 1998 ) Discusses the glass ceiling phenomenon.  In the video, in the first category, the manager talks about the two members of staff score related to organizational agility.

After he gives the grade the first staff member responds about the new packaging system and branching out, looking for new ideas and feedback, she is looking external, and it is an attribution bias as she says she has no doubts, though no systematic way of backing it up. The second person goes on to say how busy she has been this year. She has not had time to work with other departments. They all seem equally if not more busy. She is basing her performance externally; she talks about taking notes and being the silent observer, and implying she is the expert on everything. Her attention is bias as she is only putting her spin on things and assuming. There is a self serving bias as she is insinuating others.

 

On the category of communication the first person blames the shipping error on her shoulders. And says she felt terrible, so she is at cause it is an internal attribution,   though she talks about having a solution.  The second women immediately say the error was not her fault. Externally attributing it to Ken her co-worker .Saying he promised he was going to do it, and she will do it herself next time, there is no fundamental substance in what she is saying.it is attribution bias. A fundamental bias error, as she keeps saying how her promise she always keeps though gives no examples.

In the category of planning and prioritizing and the final score the first person, says how the score means the world to her, and her hard work is paying off, she is attributing her hard work with the score and says she will work harder next time and focus even more. As it is a just world hypothesis as there are no guarantees by focusing and working hard she will elevate her score.

In the 3rd category of planning and prioritizing and the final score, the second persons response was external and a fundamental attribution error. Saying everyone else’s score must be lower than hers . And how next year she will work harder and wow the manager.

References

Laurent Education Attributes ( Multimedia Online)

Daly,D.M. ( 1998) Attribution theory and the glass ceiling: Career development amongst federal employees.Internal organization journal theory and behaviour, 1, ( 1) 93-116.

Goodwin, C.J,( 2010). Research in psychology: methods in design, 6th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons

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